A landform or physical feature in the earth sciences and geology sub-fields, comprises a geomorphological unit, and is largely defined by its surface form and location in the landscape, as part of theterrain, and as such, is typically an element of topography. Landform elements also include seascape and oceanic waterbody interface features such as bays, peninsulas, seas and so forth, including sub-aqueous terrain features such as submersed mountain ranges, volcanoes, and the great ocean basins.
PHILIPPINE LAND FORMS:
I. MOUNTAINS- A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. The adjective montane is used to describe mountainous areas and things associated with them. The study of mountains is called Orography. Exogeology deals with planetary mountains, which in that branch of science are usually called montes (singular—mons). The highest mountain on Earth based from sea level is Mount Everest (8,848 m (29,029 ft)) in the Himalayas of Asia. The highest known mountain in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on the planet Mars at 21,171 m (69,459 ft).
1. Mt. Makiling
Mount Makiling, also rarely Mount Maquiling, is a potentially active volcano in Laguna province on the island of Luzon, Philippines. It rises to 1,090 m above mean sea level.
2. Mt. Apo
Mount Apo is a large solfataric, potentially-active stratovolcano in the island of Mindanao, Philippines. With an altitude of 2,954 metres (9,692 ft), it is the highest mountain in the country and is located between Davao City and Davao del Sur province in Region XI and Cotabato province in Region XII. The peak overlooks Davao City 40 kilometres (25 mi) to the northeast, Digos City 25 kilometres (16 mi) to the southeast, and Kidapawan City 20 kilometres (12 mi) to the west.
II. Volcanoes- A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot magma, volcanic ash and gases to escape from below the surface.
1. Taal Volcano
Taal Volcano is a complex volcano located on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. Historical eruptions are concentrated on Volcano Island, an island near the middle of Lake Taal. The lake partially fills Taal Caldera, which was formed by powerful prehistoric eruptions between 140,000 to 5,380 BP. Viewed from Tagaytay Ridge, Taal Volcano and Lake presents one of the most picturesque and attractive views in the Philippines. It is located about 50 km (31 miles) south of the capital of the country, the city of Manila.
2. Mayon Volcano
Renowned as the "perfect cone" because of its almost symmetrically conical shape, Mayon forms the northern boundary of Legazpi City. Local folklore refers to the volcano as Bulkang Magayon (Bikol: 'Beautiful Volcano'), after the legendary heroine Daragang Magayon (Bikol: 'Beautiful Lady').
III. Desert- A desert is a landscape or region that receives an extremely low amount of precipitation, less than enough to support growth of most plants. Most deserts have an average annual precipitation of less than 400 millimetres (16 in). A common definition distinguishes between true deserts, which receive less than 250 millimetres (10 in) of average annual precipitation, and semideserts or steppes, which receive between 250 millimetres (10 in) and 400 to 500 millimetres (16 to 20 in). Deserts can also be described as areas where more water is lost by evapotranspiration than falls as precipitation. In the Köppen climate classification system, deserts are classed as BWh (hot desert) or BWk (temperate desert). In the Thornthwaite climate classification system, deserts would be classified as arid megathermal climates.
1. Sand DunesThe La Paz Sand Dunes or Bantay Bimmaboy consists of an area of approximately 85 square kilometers (52 square miles) of protected sandy coastal desert and beach close to Laoag City, the capital of the province of Ilocos Norte in the Philippines. The area is known locally by the name Bantay Bimmaboy, a name which refers to the common perception that the dunes resemble pigs in shape. The area is also popularly known as the Desert of the North and is a popular location for shooting films.
IV. Plains- In geography, a plain is land with relatively low relief, that is flat or gently rolling. Prairies and steppes are types of plains, and the archetype for a plain is often thought of as a grassland, but plains in their natural state may also be covered in shrublands, woodland and forest, or vegetation may be absent in the case of sandy or stony plains in hot deserts. Types of flatlands for which the term is not generally used include those covered entirely and permanently by swamps, marshes, playas, or ice sheets.
1. Luzon Central Plain
Central Luzon (or Gitnang Luzon in Filipino) , also known as Region III (or Region 3), is an administrative division or region of the Republic of thePhilippines, primarily serve to organize the 7 provinces of the vast central plain of the island of Luzon (the largest island), for administrative convenience. The region contains the largest plain in the country and produces most of the country's rice supply, earning itself the nickname "Rice Bowl of the Philippines".
2. Cotabato Plain
Aracan Plain is a plain(s) in the region of North Cotabato, the country of The Philippines with an average elevation of
345 meter above sea level. The area is mildly densely populated with 109 people per km2 . The nearest town larger than 50,000 inhabitants takes about 4:02 hour by local transportation.
V. Hills- A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain. Hills often have a distinct summit, although in areas with scarp/dip topography a hill may refer to a particular section of flat terrain without a massive summit.
1. Chocolate Hills
The Chocolate Hills are an unusual geological formation in Bohol province, Philippines. According to the latest accurate survey done, there are 1,776 hills spread over an area of more than 50 square kilometres (20 sq mi). They are covered in green grass that turns brown during the dry season, hence the name.
The Chocolate Hills are a famous tourist attraction of Bohol. They are featured in the provincial flag and seal to symbolize the abundance of natural attractions in the province. They are in the Philippine Tourism Authority's list of tourist destinations in the Philippines; they have been declared the country's third National Geological Monument and proposed for inclusion in the UNESCOWorld Heritage List.
2. Buga- Buga Hills in Leyte
Located in Villaba, Leyte - Mountain stronghold of General Suzuki where thousands of Japanese soldiers died defending the area and hundreds of American lives were sacrificed in the assault to capture this hill during World War II; frequently visited by big Japanese memorial tour groups and bone hunting expedition and object of pilgrimage by domestic and foreign tourists.
The mountains and forests of Villaba are higher with grassy hills. During World War II, many Japanese soldiers came to these mountains of Villaba to counter-attack and likewise to defend themselves.
The Japanese called these mountains as Leyte Fuji or Calbukos or Canquipot. These same mountains are known to the local people as “Buga-buga” which is also famous in Japanese written histories of Leyte War.
VI. Plateau- In geology and earth science), also called a high plain or tableland, is an area ofhighland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain. A highly eroded plateau is called a dissected plateau. A volcanic plateau is a plateau produced byvolcanic activity.
1. Mambusao in Negros
VII. Island- An island is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features onatolls can be called islets, cays or keys. An island in a river or lake may be called an eyot // (also ait //), or holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago.
1. Hundred IslandThe Hundred Islands National Park (Pangasinan: Kapulo-puloan or Taytay-Bakes) is in the province of Pangasinan in northern Philippines. It is located inAlaminos City, Pangasinan. The islands (124 at low tide and 123 at high tide) are scattered along Lingayen Gulf and cover an area of 18.44 square kilometres (4,557 acres). They are believed to be about two million years old. Only three of them have been developed for tourists: Governor Island, Quezon Island, and Children's Island. The islands are actually ancient corals that extend well inland, in an area previously comprising the seabed of an ancient sea. Lowering sea levels have exposed them to the surface and the peculiar "mushroom"-like shapes of some of the islands have been caused by the eroding action of the ocean waves.
2. Cacao Pearl Island
The terms U-shaped and V-shaped are descriptive terms of geography to characterize the form of valleys. Most valleys belong to one of these two main types or a mixture of them, at least with respect of the cross section of the slopes or hillsides.
Examples:Discover a paradise... neatly hidden between two mystical mountains of Banahaw and Makiling.
A 110-acre crater more than 300 feet deep formed during some fiery volcanic upheaval hundreds of centuries ago. From the cracks, more than hundred springs of varying water temperature came to life forming natural pools with the purest mineral waters reputed to be medicinal and rejuvenating.
Known as "ilalim" meaning "under", trees and plants emerged within the shadowy heart of the crater, undisturbed for centuries, surviving to become giants reaching for sunlight.
Cagayan Valley (Lambak ng Cagayan in Filipino; Tana' nak Cagayan in the Ibanag Language; Tanap ti Cagayan in the Ilocano Language) is a regionof the Philippines, also designated as Region II or Region 02. It is composed of five provinces, namely: Batanes, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, andQuirino. It has three cities; Cauayan City, its regional center-Tuguegarao, and its commercial center-Santiago City.
Most of the region lies in a large valley in northeastern Luzon, between the Cordilleras and the Sierra Madre mountain ranges. The Cagayan River, the country's longest river runs through its center and flows out to Luzon Strait in the north, in the town of Aparri, Cagayan. The Babuyan and Batanes island groups that lie in the Luzon Strait also belong to the region.